In order to cope with the growing lack of teachers in Madagascar since 1975 and to overcome the inaction of the Malagasy government, pupils’ parents were forced to recruit teachers so that the children could continue their schooling. It was thus that a new category of teachers was born: FRAM teachers, recruited and paid by FRAM, associations of pupils’ parents.
Working conditions for FRAM teachers are very precarious: no working contract, very low income previously paid by the pupils’ parents and for a few years now by the government every 3 or 4 months, no social security and no or little training.
A short time ago, the Malagasy government decided to integrate FRAM teachers into its national education department in order to ensure an adequate level of training and to improve working conditions which however remain very difficult, even for the civil service teachers.
10,000 FRAM teachers are planned to be integrated into the department each year. More than 50,000 others are expected to be recruited.
Interview with Mirana, FRAM teacher
My name is Mirana. I am a FRAM teacher. I teach in a village about a hundred kilometres from the capital Antananarivo. I teach all of the subjects to 31 pupils aged about 14 years old.
I do part of my work on a voluntary basis. I get a quarterly subsidy from the education department. The last subsidy was paid in June 2016. Previously the parents contributed to the FRAM teachers’ pay but since the state has paid us a subsidy, they do not want to give anymore.
I do not have a work contract or social security. If I am absent for more than three days, I am replaced and I lose my job. Despite the difficult working conditions, I like teaching and will never give it up.